What are the causes of proximal muscle pain or weakness?

Causes of proximal muscle pain or weakness 


A. Inflammatory 
  • Polymyositis 
  • Dermatomyositis 
  • Other autoimmune connective tissue diseases 
  • Inclusion body myositis 
  • Sarcoid 
  • Myasthenia gravis 

B. Endocrine
  • Hypothyroidism 
  • Hyperthyroidism 
  • Cushing's syndrome 
  • Addison's disease 

C. Metabolic 
  • Myophosphotylase deficiency 
  • Phosphofructokinase deficiency 
  • Hypokalaemia 
  • Carnitine deficiency 
  • Osteomalacia
  • Hypercalcaemia 

D. Genetic 
  • Muscular dystrophy

E. Drugs/toxins 
  • Alcohol 
  • Cocaine 
  • Glucocorticoids 
  • Statins and fibrates 
  • Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors 
  • Zidovudine 

F. Infections 
  • Viral (HIV, cytomegalovirus, rubella, Epstein-Barr, echo) 
  • Parasitic (schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis) 
  • Bacterial (Clostridium perfringens, staphylococci, tuberculosis, Mycoplasma) 


[ Source: Davidson's principles and practice of medicine 23rd Edition; page 1000]


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