What are the testicular tumors?

Testicular tumours: 

Testicular tumours can be divided into two categories:
  1. Germ cell tumours
  2. Sex-cord stromal tumours 

Germ cell tumours: 

Germ cell tumours are the most common cancers in men aged 15–35 years but comprise only 1–2% of all cancers. It again can be divided into the following types:
  • Seminoma
  • Non-seminoma:
      • Choriocarcinomas
      • Testicular teratomas
      • Embryonal cell cancer
      • Yolk sac tumours

Sex-cord stromal tumour:

  • Leydig cell tumour: Commonest among sex cord tumours. It has the ability to produce both estrogen and testosterone.
  • Tumours arising from the cells of Sertoli

Clinical features of testicular tumours:

  • Testicular mass (Often incidental finding as it is usually painless, but it may be painful in some patients)
  • Symptoms of metastases to the para-aortic LN with back pain
  • Gynaecomastia (if the tumour is hCG secreting)

Investigations of testicular tumours:

  • USG of the scrotum
  • Tumour markers: α-fetoprotein (AFP), β-hCG, LDH
  • A urinary pregnancy test for hCG
  • CT or MRI: In the search for metastasis

Treatment of testicular tumours:

  • Primary treatment is surgical orchidectomy
  • Radiotherapy: For early stage of tumours
  • Chemotherapy: Treatment of choice for advanced cancer

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