What are the testicular tumors?


Testicular tumors: 

Testicular tumors can be divided into two categories:
  1. Germ cell tumors
  2. Sex-cord stromal tumors 

Germ cell tumors: Germ cell tumors are the most common cancers in men aged 15–35 years but comprise only 1–2% of all cancers. It again can be divided into following types:
  • Seminoma
  • Non-seminoma:
      • Choriocarcinomas
      • Testicular teratomas
      • Embryonal cell cancer
      • Yolk sac tumors


Sex-cord stromal tumor:
  • Leydig cell tumor: Commonest among sex cord tumors. It has ability to produce both estrogen and testosterone.
  • Tumors arising from the cells of Sertoli

Clinical features of testicular tumors:

  • Testicular mass (Often incidental finding as it is usually painless, but it may be painful in some patients)
  • Symptoms of metastases to the para-aortic LN with back pain
  • Gynaecomastia (if the tumor is hCG secreting)


Investigations:

  • USG of the scrotum
  • Tumor markers: α-fetoprotein (AFP), β-hCG, LDH
  • A urinary pregnancy test for hCG
  • CT or MRI: In search for metastasis

Treatment:

  • Primary treatment is surgical orchidectomy
  • Radiotherapy: For early stage of tumors
  • Chemotherapy: Treatment of choice for advanced cancer



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