What are the causes of Prolonged QT interval?

The causes of the prolonged QT interval are followings:


Congenital causes of prolonged QT interval:


  • Jervell-Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome: (includes deafness and is due to an abnormal potassium channel)
  • Romano-Ward syndrome: (no deafness)


Drugs that Induce prolongation of QT interval: 


  • Amiodarone
  • Sotalol
  • Class 1a antiarrhythmic drugs
  • TCA (e.g. amitriptyline) (˃SSRI)
  • SSRI (especially citalopram, Sertraline)
  • Lithium
  • Methadone
  • Chloroquine
  • Mefloquine
  • Terfenadine
  • Macrolides: Erythromycin, Clarithromycin
  • Levofloxacin
  • Domperidone
  • Ketoconazole
  • Haloperidol
  • Tacrolimus


Other causes:


  • Electrolyte: Hypocalcaemia, Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesaemia
  • Acute MI
  • Myocarditis
  • HOCM
  • Hypothermia
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Hypothyroidism

Source:

  • https://litfl.com/qt-interval-ecg-library/
  • Step Up to MRCP Review note for Part 1 and 2 by By Dr Khaled El Magraby; page: 8

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