What is cavernous sinus syndrome?

Cavernous sinus syndrome

Cavernous sinus syndrome may arise due to mass effect (e.g. result of a pituitary tumor, infection, inflammation, traumatic or vascular processes) on the structures passing through the cavernous sinus.


[Image source: Gray's anatomy- 40th Edition; page: 430]

Clinical features:

  • Ophthalmoplegia (from compression of the oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve)
  • Ophthalmic sensory loss (due to compression on the ophthalmic nerve)
  • Maxillary sensory loss (from the compression of the maxillary nerve)
  • Horner's syndrome (due to effect on the sympathetic plexus running along internal carotid artery
  • Chemosis
  • Proptosis


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