What are the causes of Horner's syndrome?

The causes of Horner's syndrome

T1 lesion by:
  • Pancoast's tumour
  • Trauma to brachial plexus
  • Cervical rib
Neck (sympathetic) lesion: 
  • Trauma
  • Neck surgery
  • Cervical sympathetomy
  • Lymphoma
  • Thyroid carcinoma
Brain stem lesion:
  • Vascular ( Lateral medullary syndrome)
  • Multiple sclerosis
Cervical cord lesion( bilateral Horner's syndrome may occur)
  • Syringomyelia
  • Spinal cord tumor (Glioma and ependymoma)
Migrane ( temporary Horner's syndrome may occur)


Additional:
Locate the site of the lesions. Can be done by presence or absence of anhydrosis in the affected areas of our body.  The picture below shows the levels of lesion. 

[Source: reproduced from Suda Medica; page 113]

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