What are the causes of Horner's syndrome?

The causes of Horner's syndrome

T1 lesion by:
  • Pancoast's tumour
  • Trauma to brachial plexus
  • Cervical rib
Neck (sympathetic) lesion: 
  • Trauma
  • Neck surgery
  • Cervical sympathetomy
  • Lymphoma
  • Thyroid carcinoma
Brain stem lesion:
  • Vascular ( Lateral medullary syndrome)
  • Multiple sclerosis
Cervical cord lesion( bilateral Horner's syndrome may occur)
  • Syringomyelia
  • Spinal cord tumor (Glioma and ependymoma)
Migrane ( temporary Horner's syndrome may occur)

Locate the site of the lesions. Can be done by presence or absence of anhydrosis in the affected areas of our body.  The picture below shows the levels of lesion. 

[Source: reproduced from Suda Medica; page 113]

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