What are the differences(comparisons) between Bartter’s syndrome, Gitelman’s syndrome and Liddle’s syndrome

The differences between Bartter’s syndrome, Gitelman’s syndrome and Liddle’s syndrome:
Traits
Mode of inheritance
Autosomal recessive
Autosomal recessive
Autosomal dominant
Defected channel or transporter
Mutation in the gene encoding
a. NKCC2 (Na-K-2Cl) channel, or
b. the ATP regulated ROMK (renal outer medullary potassium) channel or,
c. kidney specific basolateral chloride (ClC-kb) channels
Mutation of the gene encoding thiazide sensitive NCCT (Na-Cl co-transporter)
Mutation of the gene encoding amiloride-sensitive ENaC (epithelial Sodium channel)
Site of kidney tubules affected
Thick ascending limb of loop of the Henle
Early distal convoluted tubules
Late distal tubule/ cortical collecting duct.
BP
Normal
Normal
Raised
Renin and aldosterone
Raised (both)
Raised (both)
Reduced (both)
Hypokalemia
Yes
Yes
Yes
Hypomagnesaemia
Usually not, May occur
Severe
Hypo/hypercalciuria
Hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis
Hypocalciuria
Presentation
At neonatal period /early childhood
At later age
Prostaglandin E2
Raised in serum, and passes in urine
Not raised
Treatment with NSAID
Needed (indomethacin)
Not needed
Clinical resemblance like
Chronic loop diuretics use
Chronic thiazide diuretics use
Hyperaldosteronism

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